# Data Science Education: Some Thoughts

Saghir Bashir (www.ilustat.com)

Life scientists, economists, ecologists, computer scientists, social scientists, linguists, mathematicians, physcists and many others have or are choosing data science as a career. The treasure trove of backgrounds presents knowledge sharing opportunities and challenges alike. However for newcomers this career transition and continuous development can be overwhelming and leave some of them with feelings of not belonging or lacking competence, characteristics of impostor’s syndrome. Educators, mentors, trainers and managers have a crucial role to play in developing newcomers to become competent and confident data scientists.

Data science is essentially composed of:

1. Subject matter expertise
2. Statistics
3. Statistical programming

An individual could be proficient in all three but that is not usually the case. There could be different individuals representing the three components which in a sense is still “data science”. In reality, newcomers want to master 2 and 3 often placing a greater emphasis on 3. That leaves a gap in 1 and 2, the subject matter expertise and statistics. These are the foundations on which good data science is built and which need to be emphasised more in the learning and development process.

Data science starts with a collaboration with or request from a subject matter expert (e.g. ecologist, biologist, economist). The starting point could be some existing data or the need to collect new data to answer some questions of interest (e.g. identifying factors that influence some outcome). The data will have some history and definitions that need to be understood by the data scientist before embarking on any programming or statistical analysis. From the beginning it is usually an iterative process between the data scientist and the subject matter expert until the work is finalised. Building this into the learning and development of newcomers to data science is essential but no easy feat. This challenge is programming language independent.

There are many learning resources for most statistical programming languages (including for R) and data science. Newcomers are taught to perform different tasks, for example, plot data on a graph, read in data, create new variables, etc. The next step tends to be for them to explore real datasets often with limited to no statistical and subject area knowledge support leaving them vulnerable to making basic mistakes and adopting bad practices. Addressing these issues early could save a lot of heartache later.

The first point to accept is that there is no one size fits all approach. Tailoring a plan for each individual is in most situations unrealistic and unfeasible. However there are some common features that should be considered whichever approach is taken.

### Finding Example Data

I stress and procrastinate the most about finding “the right” dataset(s) to stimulate discussion and interest. Many of the real life dataset that I would like to use are subject to confidentiality clauses or contain sensitive data that cannot be shared. Fortunately there are many R packages with datasets that can be used1. Knowing which one is “right” means understanding your target audience. A dataset that works well in one environment may not work in another although some can have global appeal (e.g. the gapminder data). Choose carefully.

Having the “right” dataset means having real life questions (which can be exploratory) that are of interest to the target audience. The answers to these questions should feed into decision making processes or actions that can be taken. A subject matter expert could be consulted for support. This answers the “why” of the data.

The “what”, “why”, “when” and “how” of data must be explained before the audience start to process and analyse the data. Understanding the appropriateness, quality, validity and how the data were pre-processed empowers data scientists to find the best path for analysis, again in collaboration with the subject matter expert. It seems intuitive until you use learning resources where datasets are not (adequately) introduced or are changed without explanation.

### Statistical Analysis

Newcomers are often taught to make their work reproducible and this practice is to be strongly encouraged for good reasons. The bigger aim should be to present “trustworthy data science”2 which incorporates reproducibility. It encourages full openness and transparency about all the strengths and weaknesses. This approach can be used to nudge newcomers into understanding the methods (models) they use and not to treat them as black boxes. A better understanding of the methods used increases the quality and value of interactions with subject matter experts.

Many newcomers can find the statistical part of data science daunting and complex. Their fears can be eased by making a connection to data as described above hence smoothing their route into, what may seem like, an “abstract” world of statistics. The key concepts and structure of most models can be developed through the questions and data (i.e., design and variables) which can then initially be expressed as some “mathematical” representation. Assumptions can be discussed and challenged in the context of interpreting the results with the subject matter expert. The cycle can be closed by addressing what will be communicated (and how) to answer the questions of interest.

Good reporting practices3 4 are important in building a culture of full accessibility through openness and transparency. These on top of reproducibility strengthen data science work by answering the “what” and “why” along with the “how” which in turn will allow the “future newcomer” to return to past work more easily. This approach also makes the process of handing projects over to others or receiving ongoing projects from others much smoother.

### Global Audience

If you practice your data science on a computer that is less than five years old with constant access to electricity and internet then spare a thought for the Majority World countries (commonly referred to as “Third World”) and austerity affected European countries. Having taught in and collaborated with people in both classes of countries I learnt more about their day to day challenges.

Computers are often desktops connected to CRT monitors, that are more than 10 years old. In austerity affected European countries the public sector faced budget cuts forcing IT needs to very low down on the list of priorities. For most people, their priority was keeping their job even with significant reductions in pay and benefits.

It surprises me that so many computers continue to work in Majority World countries where electricity is not constant and is lost without notice (think of those hard disks). Clearly without electricity there is no internet access which even with electricity is not constant either. Users can have usage limits which are a function of time and/or download limits. Free access to websites and on-line communities, in many cases, is a luxury. On-line video training materials can be made accessible by providing documents, files and access to audio format or lower quality video. For instance a simple measure of accessibility can be to reference in a video exactly what you are talking about (e.g. “on slide 7…”, “in the top right hand side of the graph…”) to aid users who have ripped the audio or lower quality video.

If you want a true global reach with your educational materials then think of what you can do to reduce the size of what has to be downloaded and how your code can run on “less” powerful computers with limited internet access. Along with making code readable (à la R tidyverse) you have the additional challenge of making it accessible which is a great way to learn new R tricks. When faced with these challenges, I use an older low specification laptop for testing purposes when developing or adapting courses.

## Summary

In this post I have shared some of my thoughts on how data science education can be strengthened. I discussed integrating real life data science practices into learning and development activities especially by engaging subject matter experts and better integration of statistical methods. If you want real global reach then integrate access to Majority World and austerity affected countries into your offerings. By doing so you will also develop.

1. For a list of some of datasets available in R see: http://ilustat.com/shared/what_data_r/ (source code at https://github.com/saghirb/WhatData)

2. Some slides of a talk I gave about Trustworthy Data Science: https://speakerdeck.com/saghirb/when-to-trust-and-when-not-to-trust-data-science

3. Various guidelines for reporting of health research: https://www.equator-network.org/

4. A Guidance document on Statistical Reporting: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3908

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